III-4 Śrī Bhāshya | Rāmānuja | 15-17

Topic 15 - Childlike state means the state of innocence, being free from anger, passion, etc.

 Sutra 3,4.50

अनाविष्कुर्वन्, अन्वयात् ॥ ५० ॥

anāviṣkurvan, anvayāt || 50 ||

anāviṣkurvan—Without manifesting himself; anvayāt—on account of the context.

50. (The childlike state means) without manifesting himself, on account of the context.

In the text discussed above we meet with the word 'bālya,' which may mean either 'being a child' or 'being and doing like a child.' The former meaning is excluded, as that particular age which is called childhood cannot be assumed at will. With regard to the latter meaning, however, a doubt arises, viz. whether the text means to say that he who aims at perfect knowledge is to assume all the ways of a child, as e.g. its wilful behaviour, or only its freedom from pride and the like.--The former, the Pūrvapakshin maintains. For the text gives no specification, and texts enjoining restraints of different kinds (on the man desirous of knowledge) are sublated by this specific text which enjoins him to be in all points like a child.--This view the Sūtra disposes of. 'Not manifesting itself.' That aspect of a child's nature which consists in the child not manifesting its nature (viz. in pride, arrogance, and so on), the man aiming at true knowledge is to make his own. 'On account of connexion,' i.e. because thus only the 'balya' of the text gives a possible sense. The other characteristic features of 'childhood' the texts declare to be opposed to knowledge, 'He who has not turned away from wicked conduct, who is not tranquil and attentive, or whose mind is not at peace, he can never attain the Self by knowledge' (Ka. Up. I, 2, 24); 'When food is pure, the whole nature becomes pure' (Kh. Up. VII, 26, 2), and so on.--Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'non-manifestation.'

Topic 16 - The time of the origination of Knowledge when the Vidyā is practised

 Sutra 3,4.51

अइहिकमप्यप्रस्तुतप्रतिबन्धे, तद्दर्शनात् ॥ ५१ ॥

aihikamapyaprastutapratibandhe, taddarśanāt || 51 ||

aihikam—In this life; api—even; aprastuta-pratibandhe—if there is no obstruction to it (the means adopted); tat-darśanāt—because it is so seen from the scriptures.

51. (The fruition of Knowledge may take place) even in this life if there be no obstruction to it (the means adopted), because it is so seen from the scriptures.

Knowledge, as enjoined by Scripture, is twofold, having for its fruit either exaltation within the sphere of the Samsāra, or final Release. With regard to the former the question arises whether it springs up only immediately subsequent to the good works which are the means to bring it about; or, indefinitely, either subsequent to such works or at some later time.--The Pūrvapakshin holds the former view. A man reaches knowledge through his good deeds only, as the Lord himself declares, 'Four kinds of men doing good works worship me,' etc.(Bha. Gī. VII, 16); and when those works have been accomplished there is no reason why the result, i.e. knowledge, should be delayed.--This view the Sūtra disposes of. 'What is comprised in this world,' i.e. meditation, the result of which is worldly exaltation, springs up immediately after the works to which it is due, in case of there being no other works of greater strength obstructing the rise of knowledge; but if there is an obstruction of the latter kind, knowledge springs up later on only. 'For this is seen,' i.e. Scripture acknowledges the effects of such obstruction; for a statement such as ' what he does with knowledge, with faith, with the Upanishad that is more vigorous,' means that works joined with the knowledge of the Udgītha, and so on, produce their results without obstruction (which implies that the action of other works is liable to be obstructed).--Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'what belongs to this world.'

Topic 17 - There Is No Difference In Liberation, I.e. In The Cognition Of Brahman—it Is Of One Kind In All Cases

 Sutra 3,4.52

एवं मुक्तिफलानियमः, तदवस्थावधृते॥ ५२ ॥

evaṃ muktiphalāniyamaḥ, tadavasthāvadhṛte || 52 ||

evaṃ—Like this; muktiphala-aniyamaḥ—there is no rule with respect to Liberation, the fruit (of Knowledge); tat-avasthā-avadhṛte—because the Śruti asserts that state (to be immutable).

52. With respect to Liberation, the fruit (of Knowledge) there is no rule like this, because the Śruti asserts that state (to be immutable).

So likewise in the case of the origination, through works of very great merit, of such knowledge as has for its result final Release, the time is not definitely fixed; for here also there is ascertained the same condition, viz. the termination of the obstruction presented by other works. A further doubt might in this case be raised on the ground that such works as give rise to knowledge leading to final Release are stronger than all other works, and therefore not liable to obstruction. But this doubt is disposed of by the reflection that even in the case of a man knowing Brahman there may exist previous evil deeds of overpowering strength.--The repetition of the last words of the Sūtra indicates the completion of the adhyāya.

--Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'what has Release for its result.'