III-4 Śrī Bhāshya | Rāmānuja | 12-13

Topic 12 - The lifelong celibate who lapses in his vows to be shunned by society

 Sutra 3,4.43

बहिस्तूभयथापि स्मृतेराचाराच्च ॥ ४३ ॥

bahistūbhayathāpi smṛterācārācca || 43 ||

bahiḥ—Outside; tu—but; bhayathā-api—in either case; smṛteḥ—from the Smriti; ācārāt—from custom; ca—and.

43. But in either case (they are to be kept) outside the society, on account of the Smriti and custom.

Whether the point under discussion constitutes a minor or a major offence, in any case those who have lapsed stand outside the category of those qualified for the knowledge of Brahman. For Smriti, i.e. the text quoted above, 'I see no expiatory performance by which he, a slayer of Brahman as he is, could become pure again,' declares that expiations are powerless to restore purity. And custom confirms the same conclusion; for good men shun those Naishthikas who have lapsed, even after they have performed Prāyaśchitta, and do not impart to them the knowledge of Brahman, The conclusion, therefore, is that such men are not qualified for knowing Brahman.--Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'him who has become that.'

Topic 13 - The meditations connected with the subordinate members of sacrificial acts are to be gone through by the priest and not by the sacrificer

 Sutra 3,4.44

स्वामिनः, फलश्रुतेरित्यात्रेयः ॥ ४४ ॥

svāminaḥ, phalaśruterityātreyaḥ || 44 ||

svāminaḥ—To the sacrificer; phala-śruteḥ—from the declaration of results in the Śruti; iti—thus; ātreyaḥ—Âtreya.

44. To the sacrificer (belongs the agentship in meditations), because the Śruti declares a fruit (for it); thus Ātreya (thinks).

A doubt arises whether the meditations on such constituent elements of the sacrifice as the Udgītha, and so on, are to be performed by the sacrificer (for whose benefit the sacrifice is offered), or by the officiating priests. Ātreya advocates the former view; on the ground of Scripture showing that in the case of such meditations as the one on the small ether within the heart, fruit and meditation belong to the same person, and that in the case of such meditations as the one on the Udgītha the fruit belongs to the sacrificer (whence we conclude that the meditation also is his). Nor can it be said that the sacrificer is not competent for such meditation, for the reason that like the godohana vessel it is connected with an element of the sacrifice (which latter the priests only can perform). For the godohana vessel serves to bring water, and this of course none else can do but the Adhvaryu; while a meditation on the Udgītha as being the essence of all essences can very well be performed by the Sacrificer--true though it be that the Udgītha itself can be performed by the Udgātri priest only.--Against this view the next Sūtra declares itself.

Sutra 3,4.45

आर्त्विज्यमित्यौडुलोमिः, तस्मै हि परिक्रीयते ॥ ४५ ॥

ārtvijyamityauḍulomiḥ, tasmai hi parikrīyate || 45 ||

ārtvijyam—The duty of the Ritvik (priest); iti—thus; auḍulomiḥ—Auḍulomi; tasmai—for that; hi—because; parikrīyate—he is paid.

45. (They are) the duty of the Ritvik (priest), thus thinks Auḍulomi, because he is paid for that (i.e. the performance of the whole sacrifice).

The teacher Auḍulomi is of opinion that the meditation on the Udgītha and the like is the work of the priest, since it is he who is engaged for the purpose of performing that which gives rise to the fruit, i.e. of the entire sacrifice with all its subordinate parts. Injunctions referring to the performance of the sacrifices such as 'he chooses the priests; he gives to the priests their fee' indicate that the entire sacrificial performance is the work of the priests, and that hence all activities comprised within it-- mental as well as bodily--belong to the priests. Capability or non-capability does not constitute the criterion in this case. For although the meditations in question aim directly at the benefit of man (not at the greater perfection of the sacrifice), yet since they fall within the sphere of qualification of those who are qualified for the sacrifice, and since the sacrifice with all its subordinate elements has to be performed by the priests, and since the text 'whatever he does with knowledge that becomes more vigorous ' declares knowledge to belong to the same agent as the works which are benefited by such knowledge, we conclude that those meditations also are the exclusive duty of the priests. In the case of the meditations on the small ether, &c., on the other hand, the text says nothing as to their having to be performed by priests, and we therefore assume in accordance with the general principle that 'the fruit belongs to the performer,' that the agent there is the person to whom Scripture assigns the fruit.--Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'the lord (of the sacrifice).'

Sutra 3,4.46

श्रुतेश्च ॥ ४६ ॥

śruteśca || 46 ||

śruteḥ—From the Śruti; ca—and.

46. And because the Śruti so declares.