III-3 Śrī Bhāshya | Rāmānuja | 11-12

Topic 11 - The names ‘Ahar’ and ‘Aham’ of the Supreme Brahman as abiding in the sun and in the right eye respectively, given in Brih . 5. 5.1-2, cannot be combined, as these are two separate Vidyās

Sutra 3,3.20

संबन्धादेवमन्यत्रापि ॥ २० ॥

saṃbandhādevamanyatrāpi || 20 ||

saṃbandhāt—On account of the connection; evam—like this; anyatra—in other cases; api—also.

20. In other cases also (e.g. in the Vidyā of the Satya Brahman) on account of the connection (i.e. the object of the meditation being the Satya Brahman) (we have to combine particulars) like this (i.e. as in the Śāndilya Vidyā).

In the Brihadāraṇyaka (V, 5) it is said that Brahman is to be meditated upon as abiding within the orb of the sun and within the right eye; and then the text mentions two secret names of Brahman--aham and ahar. Here the Pūrvapakshin holds that both these names are to be comprehended in each of the two meditations 'On account of connexion,' i.e. on account of the object of meditation, i.e. Brahman being one only, although connected with different abodes, it is 'thus elsewhere also,' i.e. the same conclusion which had been arrived at in the case of the Śāṇḍilya-vidyās, has to be accepted with regard to Brahman abiding in the sun and in the eye. The meditation is one only, and hence the two secret names apply to Brahman in both its abodes.--This view the next Sūtra negatives.

Sutra 3,3.21

न वा, विशेषात् ॥ २१ ॥

na vā, viśeṣāt || 21 ||

na vā—Rather not; viśeṣāt—on account of difference.

21. Rather not (so) on account of the difference (of abode).

This is not so, for as Brahman is to be meditated upon in two different abodes, the meditations are separate. In both the Śāṇḍilya-vidyās, on the other hand, Brahman is to be meditated upon as abiding within the heart.

Sutra 3,3.22

दर्शयति च ॥ २२ ॥

darśayati ca || 22 ||

darśayati—(The scripture) declares; ca—also.

22. (The scripture) also declares (that).

That the qualities of that which abides within the sun and that which abides in the eye are not to be combined, the text itself moreover shows by specially stating that the characteristics of the one are those of the other. For such a special transfer of qualities is needed only where the qualities are not of themselves established, i.e. where the two things are naturally different.--Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'connexion,'

Topic 12 - Attributes of Brahman mentioned in Rānāyaniya-khila are not to be taken into consideration in other Brahma Vidyās e.g. the Śāndilya Vidyā, as the former is an independent Vidyā on account of the difference of Brahman’s abode

Sutra 3,3.23

संभृतिद्युव्याप्त्यपि चातः ॥ २३ ॥

saṃbhṛtidyuvyāptyapi cātaḥ || 23 ||

saṃbhṛtiḥ—Supporting (the universe); dyuvyāptiḥ—pervading the sky; api—also; cātaḥ—and for the same reason (as in the previous Sutra).

23. For the same reason (as in the previous Sutra) the supporting (of the universe) and pervading of the sky (attributed to Brahman in the Rānāyaniya-khila) also (are not to be included in other Upāsanās of Brahman).

In the Taittirīya and in the khilas of the Rānāyanīyas we have the following passage: 'Gathered together are the powers among which Brahman is the oldest; Brahman as the oldest in the beginning stretched out the sky. Brahman was born as the first of all beings; who may rival that Brahman?' which declares that Brahman gathered together all the most ancient powers, that it pervades the sky, and so on. And as these attributes are not stated in connexion with any special meditation, we must infer that they are to be included in all meditations whatever on Brahman.--This primā facie view is controverted by the Sūtra. The holding together of all powers, &c., although not mentioned in connexion with any special meditation, is not to be included in all meditations whatever, but to be connected with particular meditations 'on the same ground,' i.e. according to difference of place. Where those qualities have to be included must be decided on the ground of feasibility. The attribute of pervading the whole heaven cannot be included in a meditation on Brahman as abiding within a small place such as the heart, and hence the other attributes also which are stated together with the attribute mentioned cannot be included in those meditations. And when we find that in meditations on Brahman as abiding within a small place it is said that Brahman is greater than the earth, or that the ether within the heart is as great as the universal ether, these attributes cannot be taken in their literal sense and hence included in those meditations, but must be viewed as merely meant to glorify the object proposed for meditation.-- Herewith terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'holding together.'