III-2 Śrī Bhāshya | Rāmānuja | 3-4

Topic 3 - The self-same soul returns from Suṣupti

Sutra 3,2.9

स एव तु, कर्मानुस्मृति-शब्दविधिभ्यः ॥ ९ ॥

sa eva tu, karmānusmṛti-śabdavidhibhyaḥ || 9 ||

sa eva—The self-same soul; tu—but; karma-anusmṛti-śabda-vidhibhyaḥ—on account of Karma, memory, scriptural authority, and precept.

9. But the self-same soul (returns from Brahman after Suṣupti) on account of work, memory, scriptural authority, and precept.

Does the same person who had gone to sleep rise again at the time of waking, or a different one?--Since the soul in deep sleep frees itself from all limiting adjuncts, unites itself with Brahman, and thus being in no way different from the released soul, is no longer in any way connected with its previous body, organs, and so on; the person rising from sleep is a different one.--This view the Sūtra sets aside, saying 'but the same.' For there remains the work, i.e. the good and evil deeds previously done by the sleeper, for which the same person has to undergo retribution before the knowledge of truth arises. There is next remembrance--'I, the waking person, am the same as I who was asleep.' Scripture also declares this: 'Whatever these creatures are here, whether a lion, or tiger, or wolf, etc., that they become again' (Kh. Up. VI, io, 2). And, lastly, the injunctions which enjoin certain acts for the sake of final Release would be purportless if the person merged in deep sleep attained Release. Nor can it be said that the sleeping soul is free from all limiting adjuncts and manifests itself in its true nature (so as not to be different from the released soul). For with regard to the sleeping person the text says, ‘In truth he thus does not know himself that he is I, nor does he know anything that exists. He is gone to utter annihilation. I see no good in this' (Kh. Up. VIII, ii, 1); while, on the other hand, the texts, 'Having approached the highest light he manifests himself in his true nature; he moves about there laughing, playing, delighting himself; 'He becomes a Self-ruler; he moves about in all the worlds according to his wish'; 'The seeing one sees everything, and attains everything everywhere' (Kh. Up. VIII, 12, 3; VII, 25, 2; 26, 2), declare that the released soul is all-knowing, and so on. What is true about the sleeping person is that he is still comprised within the Samsāra, but for the time having put off all instruments of knowledge and action and become incapable of knowledge and enjoyment repairs to the place of utter rest, i.e. the highest Self, and having there refreshed himself, again rises to new enjoyment of action.--Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'work, remembrance, text, and injunction.'

Topic 4 - The nature of a swoon

Sutra 3,2.10

मुग्धेऽर्धसंपत्तिः, परिशेषात् ॥ १० ॥

mugdhe’rdhasaṃpattiḥ, pariśeṣāt || 10 ||

mugdhe—In a swoon; ardhasaṃpattiḥ—partial attainment of the state of deep sleep; pariśeṣāt—as only alternative left.

10. In a swoon (there is the) partial attainment of the state of deep sleep, as that is the only alternative left.

With regard to a person lying in a swoon or stunned, the question arises whether that state of swoon is one of the other states, viz. deep sleep and so on, or whether it is a special condition of its own.--The former alternative must be accepted. For the term 'swoon' may be explained as denoting either deep sleep or some other acknowledged state, and there is no authority for assuming an altogether different new state.--This view the Sūtra sets aside. The condition of a swooning person consists in reaching half, viz. of what leads to death; for this is the only hypothesis remaining. A swoon cannot be either dreaming or being awake; for in a swoon there is no consciousness. And as it is different in character as well as in the occasions giving rise to it from deep sleep and death, it cannot be either of those two states; for there are special circumstances occasioning a swoon, such as a blow on the head. The only possible alternative then is to view a swoon as a state in which there is made a half-way approach to death. For while death consists in the complete cessation of the soul's connexion with the body or organs of any kind, a swoon consists in the soul's remaining connected with the subtle body and organs only.

Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'the swooning person.'