II-3 Śrī Bhāshya | Rāmānuja | 2-5

Topic 2 - Air springs from ether

Sutra 2,3.8

एतेन मातरिश्वा व्याख्यातः ॥ ८ ॥

etena mātariśvā vyākhyātaḥ || 8 ||

etena—By this; mātariśvā—air; vyākhyātaḥ—is explained.

8. By this (i.e. the foregoing explanation about Ākāśa) (the fact of) air (also being an effect) is explained.

The same argumentation explains the origination of air also. That a special Sūtra is devoted to the origination of air--instead of disposing in one Sūtra of Ether and air--is for the sake of Sūtra 10, which states that 'hence (i.e. from air) there originated fire.'

Topic 3 - Brahman is not created

Sutra 2,3.9

असंभवस्तु सतः, अनुपपत्तेः ॥ ९ ॥

asaṃbhavastu sataḥ, anupapatteḥ || 9 ||

asaṃbhavaḥ—There can be no origin; tu—but; sataḥ—of the Sat (That which is); anupapatteḥ—as it does not stand to reason.

9. But there can be no origin of the Sat (That which is i.e. Brahman), as it does not stand to reason.

The 'but' has an affirmative sense. There is non-origination of that which is, i.e. of Brahman only; of whatever is different from Brahman non-origination cannot possibly be established. This means--the origination of Ether and air has been proved only in order to illustrate a general truth. Only that which is, i.e. Brahman, which is the general cause, cannot originate. Whatever is other than Brahman, i. e. the entire world comprising the Unevolved, the great principle (mahat), ahaṁkāra, the tanmātras, the sense- organs, the Ether, the air, and so on, cannot possibly be shown to be non-originated, since its being an effect is proved by the text declaring that everything is known through one thing, and in other ways.-- Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'the Ether.'

Topic 4 - Fire created from air

Sutra 2,3.10

तेजोऽतः, तथा ह्याह ॥ १० ॥

tejo'taḥ, tathā hyāha || 10 ||

tejaḥ—Fire; ataḥ—from this; tathā—so hi—verily; āha—says.

10. Fire (is produced) from this (i.e. air), so verily says (the Śruti).

It has been stated that everything different from Brahman is the effect of Brahman. The doubt now arises whether the more remote effects of Brahman originate, each of them, only from that substance which is their immediately antecedent cause or from Brahman in the form of that substance.--The decision is that they originate from those substances only; for the text 'from air fire' directly states the origination of fire from air.

Topic 5 - Water Created From Fire

Sutra 2,3.11

आपः ॥ ११ ॥

āpaḥ || 11 ||

tejaḥ—Fire; ataḥ—from this; tathā—so hi—verily; āha—says.

11. Water (is produced from fire).

Water also originates 'thence,' i. e from fire; for so the texts declare 'From fire water' (Taitt. Up. II, 1, 1); 'that sent forth water' (Kh. Up. VI, 2, 3).