IV-4 Śrī Bhāshya | Rāmānuja | 4-5

Topic 4 - The soul which has attained the Saguṇa Brahman effects its desires by mere will

 Sutra 4,4.8

संकल्पादेव तु, तच्छ्रुतेः ॥ ८ ॥

saṃkalpādeva tu, tacchruteḥ || 8 ||

saṃkalpāt—Through will; eva—only; tu—but; tat-śruteḥ—on account of the scriptures saying that.

8. But through mere will (the released souls attain their purpose), for the scriptures say so.

Concerning the released soul Scripture states, 'He moves about there, laughing, playing, rejoicing, be it with women, or chariots, or relatives' (Kh. Up. VIII, 12, 3). The doubt here arises whether the soul's meeting with relatives and the rest presupposes an effort on its part or follows on its mere will--as things spring from the mere will of the highest Person.--An effort is required; for we observe in ordinary life that even such persons as kings and the like who are capable of realising all their wishes do not accomplish the effects desired without some effort.--Against this view the Sūtra says 'by the mere will.' For, in a previous passage, Scripture expressly says, 'He who desires the world of the Fathers, by his mere will the Fathers rise to receive him,' etc. (VIII, 2, 1). And there is no other text declaring the need of effort which would oblige us to define and limit the meaning of the text last quoted.

Sutra 4,4.9

अत एव चानन्याधिपतिः ॥ ९ ॥

ata eva cānanyādhipatiḥ || 9 ||

ata eva—For the very reason; ca—and; ananyādhipatiḥ—he is without a lord.

9. And for this very reason the released soul is without a lord.

Since the released soul realises all its wishes, it does not stand under another ruler. For to be under a ruler means to be subject to injunction and prohibition, and to be such is opposed to being free in the realisation of all one's wishes. Hence Scripture says, 'he is a Self-ruler' (Kh. Up. VII, 25).--Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'wishes.'

Topic 5 - A released soul which has attained Brahmaloka can exist with or without a body according to its liking

 Sutra 4,4.10

अभावं बादरिः, आह ह्येवम् ॥ १० ॥

abhāvaṃ bādariḥ, āha hyevam || 10 ||

abhāvaṃ—Absence (of body and organs); bādariḥ—Bādari (considers); āha—(the Śruti) says; hi—because; evam—thus.

10. There is absence (of body and organs, in the case of the released souls) (considers) Bādari, because (the scripture) says thus.

A doubt arises whether the Released has a body and sense-organs, or not; or whether he has them or not just as he pleases. The teacher Bādari holds that body and sense-organs are absent; since the text declares this. The text--'as long as he is embodied there is no freedom from pleasure and pain; but when he is free from the body then neither pleasure nor pain touches him' (Kh. Up. VIII, 12, 1)--declares that pleasure and pain are necessarily connected with embodiment; and the text--'having risen from this body and reached the highest light he manifests himself in his own shape' (VIII, 12, 3)--declares that the Released one is without a body.

Sutra 4,4.11

भावं जैमिनिः, विकल्पामननात् ॥ ११ ॥

bhāvaṃ jaiminiḥ, vikalpāmananāt || 11 ||

bhāvaṃ—Existence; jaiminiḥ—Jaimini; vikalpa-āmananāt—because the scripture declares (the capacity to assume) diverse forms.

11. (The released soul) possesses (a body and the organs), considers Jaimini, because the scriptures declare (the capacity on the part of such a soul to assume) diverse forms.

The teacher Jaimini holds that the Released one has a body and senses; because the text declares manifoldness--'He is one, he is threefold, he is fivefold, he is sevenfold' (Kh. Up. VII, 26, 2). The Self which is one and indivisible cannot be manifold, and the various forms of manifoldness of which the text speaks therefore must depend on the body. The text which speaks of the absence of a body refers to the absence of that body only which is due to Karman; for this latter body only is the cause of pleasure and pain. Next the Reverend Bādarāyaṇa decides this point by the declaration of his own view.

Sutra 4,4.12

द्वादशाहवदुभयविधं बादरायणोऽतः ॥ १२ ॥

dvādaśāhavadubhayavidhaṃ bādarāyaṇo’taḥ || 12 ||

dvādaśāhavat—Like the twelve days’ sacrifice; ubhayavidhaṃ—(is) of both kinds; bādarāyaṇaḥ—Bâdarâyana; ataḥ—from this.

12. From this Bādarāyaṇa (surmises) (that the released soul is) of both kinds, like the twelve days’ sacrifice.

'For this reason,' i.e. for the reason that the text refers to the wish of the Released, the Reverend Bādarāyaṇa is of opinion that the Released may, at his liking, be with or without a body. This satisfies both kinds of texts. The case is analogous to that of the twelve days' sacrifice which, on the basis of twofold texts--'Those desirous of prosperity are to celebrate the dvādasāha,' and 'The priest is to offer the dvādasāha for him who desires offspring'-- belongs, according to difference of wish, either to the Sattra or the Ahīna class of sacrifices.--The next Sūtra declares that the body and the sense-organs of the Released are not necessarily created by the Released himself.

Sutra 4,4.13

तन्वभावे सन्ध्यवत्, उपपत्तेः ॥ १३ ॥

tanvabhāve sandhyavat, upapatteḥ || 13 ||

tat-abhāve—In the absence of a body; sandhyavat—as in dreams (which stand midway between waking and deep sleep); upapatteḥ—this being reasonable.

13. In the absence of a body (the fulfilment of desires is possible) as in dreams, since this is reasonable.

As in the absence of a body and other instruments of enjoyment created by himself, the Released may undergo experiences of pleasure by means of instruments created by the highest Person, the Released, although capable of realising all his wishes, may not himself be creative. As in the state of dream the individual soul has experiences depending on chariots and other implements created by the Lord ('He creates chariots, horses,' etc., Bri. Up. IV, 3, 10); thus the released soul also may have experience of different worlds created by the Lord engaged in playful sport.

Sutra 4,4.14

भावे जाग्रद्वत् ॥ १४ ॥

bhāve jāgradvat || 14 ||

bhāve—When the body exists; jāgrat-vat—as in the waking state.

14. When the body exists (the fulfilment of desires is) as in the waking state.

When, on the other hand, the released soul possesses a body created by its own will, then it enjoys its various delights in the same way as a waking man does.--In the same way as the highest Person creates out of himself, for his own delight, the world of the Fathers and so on; so he sometimes creates such worlds for the enjoyment of the released souls. But sometimes, again, the souls using their own creative will-power themselves create their own worlds, which however are included within the sphere of sport of the highest Person (so that the souls in enjoying them do not pass beyond the intuition of Brahman). But it has been taught that the soul is of atomic size; how then can it connect itself with many bodies?

-- To this question the next Sūtra replies.