10. Non-Substance (Adravya) | Śrī Vaishnavism
10. The Non-Substance (Adravya)
After the treatment thus given to (the Category) Substance (Dravya), that ofwill now be taken up.
Non-substance is divisible into ten clasps only viz.: -
(1) Sattva (pure),
(2) Rājas (motive) and
(3) Tamas (dark)
(9) conjunction (Saṁyoga), and
(10) Force (Śakti ).
Pureness is the (or Quality) which is the root-cause of brightness, happiness, buoyancy etc., non-sensible, and other than force etc.or
Sattva is of two kinds:
(1) Absolute Pureness (Śuddha-Sattva) and
(2) Mixed or Alloyed Pureness (Miśra-sattva).
is the Pureness inherent in Substance, devoid from restlessnessness ( ) and darkness ( ). This (exists) in the Eternal Expanse (i.e. Spiritual Regions).
Metaphorically (or secondarily) it is ascribed to God (Īśvara), its Initiator.
Theis so called by reason of the association of pureness with Rājas and Tamas, This pervades the Triune (=matter) and is figuratively (or secondarily) attributed to the soul (Jīva) consorting with it (matter).
or is the (or Quality), which is the root-cause of passion, desire, greed, activity etc., non-sensible and other than force etc.
, (or Dross) is the (or Quality), which is the root-cause of infatuation, inattention, listlessness etc., non- sensible and other than force etc.
These three (qualities)conterminously; adhere to the soul (which is) in bondage with matter; non-eternal; constantly fluxing; equipoised in the state of Dissolution (pralaya); agitated in the state of Creation (sṛṣṭi); useful for the processes of Creation, Continuance and Dissolution;
and are the cause of the mutual contrarieties existing (in the Universe) determined by the dispensations or bent of God’s Will.
These (properties) are common (to this Triad). (The differences are):
- TheQuality is the cause of blessedness born of lucid knowledge etc., and productive of Redemption (moksha).
- TheQuality is the cause of pain etc., born of attachment etc., begot by karma, and the means of bringing the supra-mundane (fruits) such as Svarga, Nāraka, etc.
TheQuality is the cause of ignorance, lethargy etc., and productive of Damnation (Nāraka).
Hence Sattva etc., are ; and not possessed of the characteristics of Substance.
which abides in all the Five Elements is that which we cognize by the sense of hearing. It is of two descriptions:
The(of the alphabet comprise the (sound), and this is utterable by means of the palate etc., by gods, men etc.
The a drum etc.(sound) is such as that emanating from
By the ear is sound, so described, apprehensible.
Either by the sense (of hearing) emanating air vibrant, is sound perceived.
But Scriptures speak of sound as Substance; how then can it be non-substance (i. e. quality)?
The escape (from this objection) consists in showing that the composition of Prāṇava (Aum) by its components A (अ) etc., is made through what is signified (by A etc., viz.; Ākāśa).
is that Quality which we perceive by the sense of touch (in skin), other and separate (than those of the other senses). This is of 3 kinds:
(2) warm and
(3) equable (temperature).
the in fire,
the in earth and air.
Also it (touch) is divisible into:
(1) what is , or (a product = pākaja) and
(2) What is or (causal of elementary a-pākaja),
the is in the other three (viz., ether, fire and water).
The touch pertaining in a special manner, to (such things as) nectar, poison, pearl, silk, stone, cow, Brāhmaṇa, Chaṇḍāla etc., is classifiable under the head “.”
is that Quality which is perceived by our sense of sight (eye) alone, other and separate (than the other qualities).
Colour is of 4 kinds:
(3) yellow and
of varieties is the colour found in silver, conch, shell, moon etc.
of varieties is found in fire, rose, pomegranate, bandhu-Jīva, coral, ruby etc.
of varieties is the colour found in gold, saffron, turmeric etc.
of varieties is the colour found in sapphire, bee, cloud, night (or darkness), tamāla, grass etc.
Some, following the Śruti, hold the view that yellow is a species of red.
As an alternative (classification), colour is twofold:
(1) Radiant and
is (what is found) in (self-) luminous (objects);
is (what is found) in such (things) as the eye, water, etc.
Thusis , and therefore the view some maintain that there is a fifth colour the variegated, is rejected.
For reasons similar, the idea that there is a variegated odour, touch and savour, is debarred.
is the Quality perceptible to our sense of taste (tongue), other and of different species (than the rest of the qualities).
Taste is of:
(5) pungent, and
The varieties are of the mango, tamarind, Myrobalan-fruit etc.
The varieties are of salt, saline products etc.
The varieties are of champaka, margosa etc.
The varieties are of ginger, pepper, mustard etc.
The varieties are of the yellow Myrobalan (gallnut) vibhītakī, mango-sprout etc.
is the Quality apprehensible by our sense of smell (nose), other and of a different order (than the other qualities).
Odour is of two kinds:
(1) odour and
The varieties of
The are what may be found in others than these.
Odour is specifically, and varieties spring out of its modifications.
The perception of odour in air, water etc., is by reason of its impregnation with earth and is tropically so (used) like the expression “iron burns.”
Though all qualities may abide in all the elements in virtue of their (elements’) 5-foldness, (the assignment of) particular qualities (to particular elements) is by reason of (their). There is thus no contradiction.
The change of quality, consequent on maturation, (or modification a substance may undergo) occurs in its own sub-stratum (i.e. in the same substance).
When this (change) is explicable by the non-disappearance of its own substratum, the tenet that the atoms (themselves) undergo change is untenable.
Saṁyoga) is the (Quality which is the) cause of the cognition of the conjunct (objects).(
The quality of Conjunction is universal to the(see Chapter 4):
(3) Pure Matter;
(4) Attributive Consciousness;
The contradiction of its non-existence as well as existence in the substratum, is accountable by the fact of the substratum having diverse parts.
(a Quality) is both of the and of the :
The conjunct” (objects) as two goats or two duellists (rushing towards each other for combat), or by the impulse of one, as of a hawk perching on a post.(subsists) in limited (objects) by the impulse of both the “
of a Conjunction originating from a Conjunction, for example the conjunction of a book with the body, arising from its (book’s) conjunction with the hand;
but we say, inasmuch as one conjunction - hand with book - implies the other, and no two successive conjunctions, therefore, one springing from the other (need predication).
For similar reasoning, the origination of a Disjunction from another Disjunction is also discarded. Disjunction (Vibhāga or Viyoga) is none other than the negation of Conjunction of bodies; hence it is not a distinct Quality.
The(kind of) is between infinite (vibhu) substances:
Conjunction of eternal (lit. non-originated=ajā) substances, is admitted(Vedas);
also the Conjunction of eternal substances is established thus: -
“An infinite substance has conjunction with an infinite substance,
For it is substance,
Like the jar”; (or),
“An infinite substance is conjoined with God (Īśvara),
For it is substance,
Like the jar”; (or),
“God (Īśvara) is conjoined with Time etc.,
For He is substance,
Like the jar.”
By such (ratiocinations), the Conjunction of infinite substances is established.
Now,is that particular non-Substance (i. e. Quality) which stands as the reason of . This is made evident both by Inference as well as Scriptures (Āgama).
That Force (or Power) which is not palpable to the senses, is that by which fire ceases to burn when obstructed by the presence of such things as gems, charms etc., though there is no paucity of substance to help its nature (i. e., help fire to burn).
The existence of such (power) is evident in the. This power abides in (all) the Six Substances (listed above).
The abidance (of Force)is established by the Vishnu Purāṇa, etc. Hence the Quality known as Force (or Power) is discoverable universally.
But if it be asked how when Qualities have been enumerated as 24, only 10 have been recognised, the reply is:
that as already shown, the Jīvātmā).(Qualities) Thought, Pleasure, Pain, Desire, Aversion and Will (or Effort) are but - qualities or attributes of the Soul (
and , contingent (respectively) on the Grace and Wrath of God, are resolvable into the .
Theis resolvable into ,
theis accountable from the cause of Momentum (Energy), and the Power of Elasticity is accounted for by means of .
The(Qualities), Sound, Touch, Colour, Savour, and Odour are admitted as evident to the .
are resolvable into the .
are accountable by particularities of .
Number, Extension, Fluidity and Viscidity are accountable by the very nature of the substances to which they pertain.
is properly resolvable into .
Hence (the analysis of Non-Substance into)Qualities accords with reason.
Amongst these, Sattva, Rājas and Tamas, - the Qualities of Matter, - are also (by attribution) Qualities of the Soul.
But expressions like:
“Knowledge of the pure sort” (Sattva-rūpam jñānam),
“Pure is the time” (sātvikaḥ-kālaḥ) etc.,
- are, on account of accident (upādhi), of adescription.
Sound etc., pertaining to matter, are well known as the Qualities of the Five Elements.-
Theof course exists in the Eternal Expanse (=Spiritual Universe), and in God who is its Actuator (Will).
and are universal (or common) to the Six Substances.
Such is the distribution.
- Non-Substance has thus been demonstrated.
Thus ends Chapter 10,
The Treatment of Non-Substance (A-dravya) in the
“Light of the School of Rāmānuja”