IV-1 Śrī Bhāshya | Rāmānuja | 12-13

Topic 12 - Obligatory works are however excepted from the rule mentioned in topic 10

 Sutra 4,1.16

अग्निहोत्रादि तु तत्कार्यायैव, तद्दर्शनात् ॥ १६ ॥

agnihotrādi tu tatkāryāyaiva, taddarśanāt || 16 ||

agnihotrādi—(Daily) Agnihotra etc.; tu—but; tat-kāryāya—contribute to the same result as that (Knowledge); eva—only; tat-darśanāt—that being seen (from the scriptures).

16. But (the results of daily) Agnihotra etc. (are not destroyed by Knowledge; these) contribute to the very same result as Knowledge (i.e. Liberation), because that is seen from the scriptures.

It might here be said that special works incumbent on the several āśramas, as e. g. the Agnihotra, need not be undertaken by those who are not desirous of their results, since these works also fall under the category of good works the result of which does not 'cling.'--This view the Sūtra sets aside. Such works as the Agnihotra must be performed, since there is no possibility of their results not clinging; for him who knows, those works have knowledge for their exclusive effect. This we learn from Scripture itself: 'Him Brāhmaṇas seek to know by the study of the Veda, by sacrifices, gifts, austerities, and fasting.' This passage shows that works such as the Agnihotra give rise to knowledge, and as knowledge in order to grow and become more perfect has to be practised day after day until death, the special duties of the āśrama also, which assist the rise of knowledge, have daily to be performed. Otherwise, those duties being omitted, the mind would lose its clearness and knowledge would not arise.--But if good works such as the Agnihotra only serve the purpose of giving rise to knowledge, and if good works previous to the rise of knowledge perish, according to the texts 'Having dwelt there till their works are consumed' (Kh. Up. V, 10, 5) and 'having obtained the end of his deeds' (Bri. Up. IV, 4, 6), to what then applies the text 'His sons enter upon his inheritance, his friends upon his good works'?--This point is taken up by the next Sūtra.

Sutra 4,1.17

अतो’न्यापि ह्येकेषामुभयोः ॥ १७ ॥

ato’nyāpi hyekeṣāmubhayoḥ || 17 ||

ataḥ—From this; anya—different; api—also; hi—indeed; ekeṣām—of some (Śākhās); ubhayoḥ—of both.

17. (There are) indeed (good works) also different from this (daily Agnihotra and the like), (with reference to which is the statement) of some (Śākhās); (this is the view) of both (Jaimini and Bādarāyaṇa).

The text quoted above from one śākhā ('His friends enter upon his good deeds') refers to good works other than the Agnihotra and the rest, the only object of which is to give rise to knowledge, viz. to all those manifold good works, previous or subsequent to the attaining to knowledge, the results of which are obstructed by other works of greater strength. Those texts also which declare works not to cling or to be destroyed through knowledge refer to this same class of works.

--The next Sūtra recalls the fact, already previously established, that the results of works actually performed may somehow be obstructed.

Topic 13 - Sacrificial works not combined with knowledge or meditations also help in the origination of Knowledge

Sutra 4,1.18

यदेव विद्ययेति हि ॥ १८ ॥

yadeva vidyayeti hi || 18 ||

yat-eva—Whatever; vidyayā—with knowledge; iti—thus; hi—because.

18. Because (the statement), “Whatever (he does) with knowledge,” indicates this.

The declaration made in the text 'whatever he does with knowledge that is more vigorous,' viz. that the knowledge of the Udgītha has for its result non-obstruction of the result of the sacrifice, implies that the result of works actually performed may be obstructed. We thus arrive at the conclusion that the text of the Sātyāyanins,' his friends enter upon his good works,' refers to those good works of the man possessing knowledge the results of which were somehow obstructed (and hence did not act themselves out during his lifetime, so that on his death they may be transferred to others).--Here terminates the Adhikaraṇa of 'the Agnihotra and the rest.'