Bhagavad Gita with Commentaries of Ramanuja | Discourse 10 verse 22-42

vedānāṃsāma-vedo’smi devānām asmi vāsavaḥ|
indriyāṇāṃmanaścāsmi bhūtānām asmi cetanā|| 22 ||

22. Of the Vedas I am the Sāmavēda; I am Indra among the gods. Among sense-organs I am the Mind, and of sentient beings I am consciousness.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that among the four Vedas, His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is the Sāma Veda, of all the devas His vibhūti is the celestial chief Indra.

Of the 11 senses called indriyāṇāṃ being seeing, hearing, tasting, touching and smelling which corresponds respectively to the eyes, ears, tongue, skin and nose with the 11th being the mind which as the chief of them all is Lord Krishna vibhūti.

Of all living beings whatever consciousness arises within them apart from intelligence that is also His vibhūti.

rudrāṇāṃ śaṅkaraścāsmi vitteśo yakṣa-rakṣasām |
vasūnāṃpāvakaścāsmi meruḥ śikhariṇām aham || 23 ||

23. Of the Rudras I am Sankara; among the Yakshas and Rakshasa, I am the Lord of wealth (Kubera). Of the Vasus I am Agni; of the peaked mountains, I am Meru.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals of the 11 Rudras or expansions of destruction, His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is Śankara a name for Shiva and of the 8 Vasus His vibhūti is Pāvaka which is Agni the fire-god.

purodhasāṃca mukhyaṃmāṃviddhi pārtha bṛhaspatim |
senānīnām ahaṃskandaḥsarasām asmi sāgaraḥ|| 24 ||

24. Among domestic priests, O Arjuna, know Me to be their chief — Bṛhaspati. Among army generals, I am Skanda; among reservoirs of water, I am the ocean.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that of priests His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is Brihaspati the chief priest of all the devas.

The word senānīnām means generals or commanders of armies of them all Lord Krishna's vibhūti is Skanda who commands the armies of the gaṇas and is known as Kārtikeya the son of Shiva.

maharṣīṇāṃbhṛgur ahaṃgirām-asmy-ekam akṣaram |
yajñānāṃjapa-yajño’smi sthāvarāṇāṃhimālāyaḥ|| 25 ||

25. Among the great sages, I am Bhrigu; among words, I am the single syllable Om. Among sacrifices, I am the sacrifice of Japa and among immovable things I am the Himalayas.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that of the holy sages His vibhūti is Bhrigu. The word girām means articulate sound vibrations of these Lord Krishna's vibhūti is the all-powerful monosyllable OM.

Of all yajña or propitiation and worship to the Supreme Lord, the best and most elevated is japa-yagno the reverential and devotional chanting of the Supreme Lord Krishna holy names.

Of terrestrial mountains His vibhūti is the mighty Himalayas.

aśvatthaḥsarva vṛkṣāṇāṃdevārṣīṇāṃca nāradaḥ|
gandharvāṇāṃcitrarathaḥsiddhānāṃkapilo muniḥ|| 26 ||

26. Of trees I am the Ashvattha; among celestial seers (deva-Rishis) I am Nārada. Of the Gandharvas I am Citraratha and among the perfected beings, I am Kapila.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Of trees Lord Krishna's vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is the sacred Aśvattha, worshippable by everyone.

Of elevated sages His vibhūti is Nārada because of his phenomenal level of bhakti or exclusive loving devotion unto the Supreme Lord.

uccaiḥśravasam aśvānāṃviddhi mām amṛtodbhavam |
airāvataṃgajendrāṇāṃnarāṇāṃca narādhipam || 27 ||

27. Of horses know Me to be Uccaihshravas the nectar-born. Of lordly elephants, I am Airāvata, and among humankind, I am the monarch.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Uccaihshravas was the celestial horse born from the churning of the ocean of ambrosia.

The king of elephants Airāvata was also produced from the churning of the ocean [and given to Indra].

āyudhānām ahaṃvajraṃdhenūnām asmi kāmadhuk |
prajanaścāsmi kandarpaḥsarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ|| 28 ||

28. Among weapons, I am the Vajra (thunderbolt). Among cows, I am Kāmadhuk; among progenitors, I am Kandarpa (the god of love). Of dragons, I am Vāsuki .

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna's vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence known as Kāmadhuk refers to Kāmadhenu or the divine and sacred Surabhi cow the fulfiller of all desires.

Kandarpa is His vibhūti which is the primal force that motivates procreation and causes progeny.

Sarpaanam refers to poisonous single headed serpents of which Vāsuki is king of them all.

anantaścāsmi nāgānāṃvaruṇo yādasām aham |
pitṛṇām aryamācāsmi yamaḥsaṃyamatām aham || 29 ||

29. Amongst Nāgas, I am Ananta. Of aquatic-deities I am Varuṇa; of the manes, I am Aryamā and among subduers, I am Yama.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence among nāgānāṃ is Ananta. Nagas are non-poisonous serpents with many heads. The word yādasām means aquatics or inhabitants of water and of punishers and chastisers His vibhūti is Yamaraja.

prahlādaścāsmi daityānāṃkālaḥkalayatām aham |
mṛgāṇāṃca mṛgendro’haṃvainateyaśca pakṣiṇām || 30 ||

30. Among Daityas, I am Prahlāda and among reckoners I am Time [Kāla]. Of beasts, I am the lion, and of birds I am Garuda the son of Vinatā.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna's vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence of subjugators is kālaḥ or time. Kālaḥ also denotes Mrityu or death which is the most powerful subjugator subduing all.

pavanaḥpavatām asmi rāmaḥ śastra-bhṛtām aham |
jhaṣāṇāṃmakaraś-cāsmi srotasām-asmi jāhnavī|| 31 ||

31. Of moving things, I am the wind. Among warriors I am Rāma; among fishes, I am the shark, and amongst rivers, I am Ganga.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that of things that purify and things that are the swiftest His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is the wind.

The words śastra-bhṛtām means weapon wielding heroes of which His vibhūti is Rāma but unlike other vibhūti which are indirect, Rāma is an avatar or direct incarnation of the Supreme Lord Krishna who manifests Himself as Rāma the paragon of weapon wielding heroes.

Indirect Vibhūtis such as the Maruts or the Vāsus are still jīvas or embodied souls even though imbued with a filament of the Supreme Lords potency. In relationship to the Supreme Lord they are exactly like potencies serving Him as the weapons wielded by Rāma are likewise serving Him.

sargāṇām ādir-antaśca madhyaṃcaivāham arjuna |
adhyātma vidyāvidyānāṃvādaḥpravadatām aham || 32 ||

32. In relation to beings, I am the beginning and the end, and also the middle, O Arjuna. Among sciences I am the science of the Self. In the discipline of debate, I am logical reasoning.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is sargāṇām or creation.

Creation is the total sum of all things in existence and the Supreme Lord Krishna is the beginning or origin of all, the middle or preservation of all and the end or dissolution of all being the creator of everything.

Of the three forms of debate and argument His vibhūti known as vādaḥ is the discriminating debate that results in knowledge of the absolute conclusive truth.

This is in opposition to the other two forms being jalpa which is an argument calculated to destroy the opposition at any cost even by deception and falsehood.

The other is vintanda whose aim is to criticize and undermine the opposition’s position without ever establishing any position.

akṣarāṇām akāro’smi dvandavaḥsāmāsikasya ca |
aham evākṣayaḥkālo dhātā’haṃviśvato mukhaḥ|| 33 ||

33. Among the letters of the alphabet I am ‘A’. I am the dual among compound words; I am Myself everlasting Time and I am the Creator, facing every direction.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that of the letters of the alphabet His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is the Sanskrit letter A-kara which is the root of all other letters.

The Rig Veda, III.II.III in the Aitareya- Āraṇyaka section states:

akaro vai sarva vak —The letter “A” itself is all speech (Ai. Ar. 3.2.3, Ai Up. 3:6).

Samasika means the entire collection of compound words of which I am the Dvandva (dual) compound; it is pre-eminent because the meanings of both constituent terms are equally important. I am Myself everlasting Time (Kāla) composed of divisions like hours and minutes etc. I am the four-faced Brahma who is the creator of all.

mṛtyuḥsarva-haraś-cāham udbhavaśca bhaviṣyatām |
kīrtiḥ śrīr-vāk ca nārīṇāṃsmṛtir-medhādhṛtiḥkṣamā|| 34 ||

34. I am Death among plunderers. I am the origin of all that shall be born. In women I am fame, prosperity, eloquence, memory, intelligence, endurance and forgiveness.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that of destroyers His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is mṛtyuh or death, the great terminator of life in all material existences.

Of the eight transformations of physical existence His vibhūti is the first known as birth.

And His vibhūti is all of the seven feminine perfections being kirtih or exalted reputation, Śrīr or lustrous beauty, vak or articulate speech, smṛti or excellent memory, medhā or discerning intelligence, dhṛiti or fortitude and kasma or forgiveness.

bṛhatsāma tathāsāmnāṃgāyatrīchandasām aham |
māsānāṃmārgaśīrṣo’ham ṛtūnāṃkusumākaraḥ|| 35 ||

35. Of the Sāma hymns, I am the Brhatsaman hymn and I am the Gāyatri among meters. Of months, I am Mārgasīrsha (November-December): and of seasons I am the season of flowers (spring).

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that among the hymns in His vibhūti or His divine, transcendental opulence the Sāma Veda, His foremost vibhūti is the Brihat- sama which is a special prayer that is indicated in the Rig Veda VI.XXXXVI.I beginning tvam rddhim havamahe and glorifies the post of Indra the ruler of all the devas during the time when the Supreme Lord Himself assumes that position as He did in the case of His manavatara incarnation of Dharmasetu.

The word mārga-śīrṣo refers to harvesting month of grains which is His vibhūti and the word ṛtūnāṃ means season and the word kusumākaraḥ means flowery which means His vibhūti is the springtime.

dyūtaṃchalayatām asmi tejas tejasvinām aham |
jayo’smi vyavasāyo’smi sattvaṃsattvavatām aham || 36 ||

36. Of the fraudulent [activities], I am gambling. I am the brilliance of the brilliant, I am victory, I am effort, I am the magnanimity of the magnanimous.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that of cheaters His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is gambling the art of plundering those who cheat. His vibhūti is victory for the victorious and His vibhūti is perseverance for the enterprising.

The word sattvam refers to goodness and of those who are good, His vibhūti is the magnanimity and goodness they possesses.

vṛṣṇīnāṃvāsudevo’smi pāṇḍavānāṃdhanañjayaḥ|
munīnām apy-ahaṃvyāsaḥkavīnām uśanākaviḥ|| 37 ||

37. Of the Vṛishṇis [clan] I am Vāsudeva. Of the Pāṇḍava [family] I am Arjuna. Among sages I am Vyāsa and among seers, I am Uśanā (Śukra).

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

The Vṛishṇi lineage descends from King Yayāti and Queen Devayānī from which Vāsudeva is the sixth generation of descendants.

Lord Krishna's vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence cannot be referring to Himself as the son of Vāsudeva because He is describing His vibhūti.

The only other son of Vāsudeva is Balarāma who is Lord Krishna's first expansion and manifests every incarnation including Vishnu. So Balarāma is the vibhūti referred to here.

Of sages or those who have realised the ultimate truth His vibhūti is Vedavyāsa. Kavayah are those seers who are omniscient.

daṇḍo damayatām asmi nītir-asmi jigīṣatām |
maunaṃcaivāsmi guhyānāṃjñānaṃjñānavatām aham || 38 ||

38. Of disciplinarians, I am the principle of punishment. Among conquerors, I am diplomatic policy. Of secrets, I am verily silence; and of those who are wise, I am wisdom.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that of damayatām or chastisers His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is the rod of punishment that punishes those who are infringement of the law.

Of those who seek to succeed in conflict His vibhūti is the expedient policy of reconciliation, dissension, bribery and dominance.

Of all matters concerning secrecy His vibhūti is maunam or silence.

yaccāpi sarva bhūtānāṃbījaṃtad aham arjuna |
na tadasti vināyat syān mayābhūtaṃcarācaram || 39 ||

39. Whatever is the essence of all beings, O Arjuna, I am that. There is nothing mobile or immobile that can exist without Me.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

The bīja or root seed in all things and all beings which causes their appearance in whatever condition they may exist are all manifested by the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Whatever the composite total of all beings in all of existence without Lord Krishna's manifestation as the ātma or eternal soul within every living entity, there can be no possibility of existence in any manner of form.

Lord Krishna exists in all things so this means that all things are always bonded to Him:

It is evident from this that what is intended to be shown by samanadhi-kāraṇya or co-existence of substance and attribute as one object is the reality of the Supreme Lord residing within all beings as the purely spiritual eternal soul.

So it is apparent that all things have only their relative existences in relationship to the Supreme Lord.

nānto’sti mama divyānāṃvibhūtīnāṃparaṅtapa |
eṣa tūddeśataḥprokto vibhūter vistaro mayā|| 40 ||

40. There is no limit to My divine glories O Arjuna (Scorcher-of-foes). Here I have only briefly adumbrated My Divine Manifestations.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is infinite without end and to account for them all is impossible as new ones are always manifesting.

The ones that have been stated in this chapter are those that have manifested somehow or other with some restrictions and thus only give a limited perception.

yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṃ śrīmad ūrjitam eva ca |
tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṃmama tejo’ṃśa saṃbhavam || 41 ||

41. Know for certain that whatever has sovereignty, splendour and brilliance is produced by a mere fraction of My potency.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Whatever there is in existence that is wonderful, glorious, majestic or magnificent, wherever is seen in existence fantastic enthusiasm attended to with great pomp and éclat, whoever and however there is in existence that manifests and broadcasts the phenomenal grandeur and sublime glory of the Supreme Lord

should be known to be under His direction and an infinitesimal portion of the tejas or power of Lord Krishna's vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence. Out of His inconceivable potency all His vibhūti manifest from but a fraction of His power.

athavābahunaitena kiṃjñānena tavārjuna |
viṣṭabhyāham-idaṃkṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat || 42 ||

42. But of what use to you is all this extensive knowledge, O Arjuna? I abide, sustaining this whole universe with but a fraction of Myself.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna now informs that whatever has been confirmed as the reality regarding His vibhūti or divine, transcendental opulence is extremely minimal.

In whatever condition the material creation may appear, be it the absolute reality of the supra subtle unmanifest state of the Brāhman being the spiritual substratum pervading all existence or be it the relative reality of the supra gross manifest state possessing the five elements.

Whether existing temporarily or in perpetuity, the total creation comprised of cit or consciousness and acit or unconscious beings, objects and substances are structured in such a way as to not conflict with each other and never to go contrary against the Supreme Lord's will.

The blessed Parāśara the father of Vedavyāsa revealed in the Vishnu Purāṇa that the whole creation is maintained by 110,000 part of 110,000 part of Lord Krishna's inconceivable power.

hariḥ oṃ tatsat
iti śrīmad bhagavadgītāsupaniṣatsu
brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre
śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna saṃvāde vibhūti-yogo nāma
daśamo’dhyāyaḥ

Thus in the Upanishads of the Glorious Bhagavad Gita
The science of the Eternal, the Scripture of Yoga
The dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna
Ends the tenth discourse entitled
“Manifestation of Divine Glories”