Bhagavad Gita with Commentaries of Ramanuja | Discourse 10 verse 10-21

teṣāṃsatata-yuktānāṃbhajatāṃprīti-pūrvakam |
dadāmi buddhi-yogaṃtaṃyena mām-upayānti te || 10 ||

10. To those, who are constantly harmonised with Me and who worship Me with intense love, I fondly grant the mental disposition (Buddhi-yoga) by which they attain to Me.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

The words satata-yuktānāṃ means those who constantly aspires for Lord Krishna's association. They aspire by incessantly worshipping Him and intensely meditating for communion with Him.

To such persons out of loving compassion, Lord Krishna gives them buddhi-yogam or spiritual intelligence so that their individual consciousness can attain communion with the ultimate consciousness of the Supreme Lord and come to Him.

teṣām evānukam pārtham aham ajñānajaṃtamaḥ|
nāśayāmy-ātmabhāvastho jñāna-dīpena-bhāsvatā|| 11 ||

11. Out of compassion for them alone, I, being the focus of their thought processes, dispel the darkness born of ignorance by the brilliant lamp of wisdom.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

It is due to the loving compassion felt by the Supreme Lord Krishna for those persons who dedicate and devote their lives to Him that He is always manifest in their hearts and minds as the paramount object of their thoughts and plans and activities, accompanied by the realisation of His transcendental qualities and attributes.

The words jñāna- dīpena meaning the radiant light of knowledge is verily Lord Krishna Himself in all their thoughts.

Tamah or the darkness of ignorance to which beings are continuously subjected to is due to past and present karma or the reactions to one's actions.

This tamah and karma are extremely antagonistic to spiritual intelligence and produce the desire for things material and temporary instead of things spiritual and eternal which lead to Lord Krishna; but for His devotees He dispels their tamah and dissolves their karma.

Having comprehended the qualities, attributes and character of the Supreme Lord Krishna regarding His vibhūti or phenomenal, transcendental potencies, manifesting throughout all of creation and His yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with His ultimate consciousness eternally.

This knowledge will mature into appreciation which will evolve into bhakti or exclusive loving devotion for Him and subsequently unlimited bliss will naturally arise within the hearts and minds of His devotees.

arjuna uvāca
paraṃbrahma paraṃdhāma pavitraṃparamaṃbhavān |
puruṣaṃ śāśvataṃdivyam ādidevam ajaṃvibhum || 12 ||

Arjuna said:

12. You are Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Light, and the Supreme Purifier. All the seers proclaim You as the eternal, divine Person, the Primal Lord, the unborn and all-pervading.

ahus-tvām ṛṣayaḥsarve devārṣir-nāradas -tathā|
asito devalo vyāsaḥsvayaṃcaiva bravīṣi me || 13 ||

13. So also declare all the divine sages Nārada, Asita, Devala and Vyāsa, now You Yourself also proclaim this.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

The Supreme Lord Krishna is He whom all the Vedic scriptures proclaim as param brahma the Supreme Ultimate Truth, param dhama the Supreme Ultimate Shelter and pavitram paramam the Supreme Purifier.

Thus the Vedas assert:—

“From whom all these beings are born, by whom, when born, they live and into whom they return when they perish—investigate this well. This is Brahman” (Tai.Up., 3.1.1);

“He who knows Brahman attains the Highest” (Ibid., 2.1.1); and

“He who knows the Supreme Brahman becomes the Brahman” (Mun.Up., 3.2.9).

Likewise Krishna is the Supreme Light. The term “Dhaman” here connotes light:

“Now, the light which shines beyond this highest heaven. “ (Cha.Up., 3.13.7);

“Attaining the Supreme Light, it [the liberated jīva] appears with its own form” (Ibid.,

8.12.2);

“The gods worship Him as the Light of lights” (Br.Up., 4.4.16).

Krishna is also the Supreme Sanctifier, the One who is the ultimate liberator from sins. He purifies the meditator of all sins (proclivities) and also destroys them (their effects) without any trace.

The Veda declares: —

‘As water clings not to the leaf of a lotus-flower, so sinful deeds cling not to one who knows thus’ (Cha. Up., 4.14.3):

‘Just as the fibre of Ishika reed (reed-cotton) laid on a fire is burnt up, so also all one’s sins are burnt up’ (Ibid., 5.24.3); and

‘Nārāyaṇa is the Supreme Brahman, Nārāyaṇa is the Supreme Light, Nārāyaṇa is the Supreme Self’ (Ma. Na., 9.4).

Sages are those who know in reality the higher truth (the Supreme Brahman), and the lower truth (individual jīvas); they speak of Krishna as the eternal Divine Person, Original Lord, the unborn and all-pervading.

So also divine sage Nārada, Asita, Devala and Vyāsa declare: —

“This Nārāyaṇa,  Lord  of  Śrī,  the  one  who  resides  on  the  Milk  Ocean,  relinquishing  His Serpent-couch,  has  come  to  the  city  of  Mathura    “Wherever  Krishna   is,  there  is  the blessed [city of] Dvārāvatī. He is the Lord Himself, the ancient One and Eternal Dharma.

Those  who  know  the  Vedas  and  those  who  know  the  Self  declare  the  great-minded Krishna  to  be  the  eternal  Dharma.  Of  all  sanctifiers,  Krishna  is  said  to  be  the  most sanctifying, the most virtuous of the virtuous, the most auspicious among the auspicious.

The lotus-eyed God of gods, the eternal, abides as the three worlds... Hari whose essential nature is beyond thought, abides thus.  Madhusudana is there alone” (Ma.  Bha.  Vana., 88.24-25). 

Similarly it is stated: —

“O Arjuna, where the Divine, the eternal Nārāyaṇa the Supreme Self is, there the entire universe,  the  sacred  water  and  the  holy  shrines  are  to  be  found. 

That is sacred, that is Supreme Brahman, those are sacred waters, that is the austerity grove —there dwell the divine sages, the Siddhas and all those rich in austerities where the Primal Creator, the great Yogin Krishna the slayer of the demon Madhu dwells.

It is the most sacred among the sacred. For you, let there be no doubt about this’ (Ibid-, 90 28-32);

“Krishna Himself is the origin and dissolution of all beings. For, this universe, consisting of sentient and insentient entities, was projected for the sake of Krishna” (Ma. Bha. Sabha., 38.23).

And Krishna Himself says so in the passage beginning with—“Earth, water, fire, ether, mind, intellect and Ahaṁkāra; this Prakṛti, which is divided eightfold, is Mine” (7.4) and ending with “I am the origin of all; from Me proceed everything” (10.8).

sarvam etad ṛtaṃmanye yan-māṃvadasi keśava |
na hi te bhagavan vyaktiṃvidur-devāna dānavāḥ|| 14 ||

14. O Krishna, I am convinced of all this that You say to Me, verily O Lord, neither the gods nor the anti-gods know Your identity.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Here Arjuna is asserting that all Lord Krishna is stating is absolutely factual and not any metaphorical description.

This means that every word that Lord Krishna speaks is the absolute reality and His extraordinary and infinite glories and illustrious qualities and phenomenal attributes are always manifest and eternal.

Thus Lord Krishna is known as Bhagavan the complete possessor of the six perfections: total power, total beauty, total wisdom, total wealth, total fame and total renunciation.

Neither the devaḥ or devas nor the Dānavas or demons being of limited understanding have the ability to understand Him and perceive His identity in full.

svayam evātmanātmānaṃvettha tvaṃpuruṣottama |
bhūta-bhāvana bhūteśa deva-deva jagat-pate || 15 ||

15. O Supreme Being, O Creator of beings, O Lord of beings, O God of gods, O Ruler of the universe, You Yourself know Yourself by Yourself.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna is being addressed here as Puruṣottama meaning the Supreme Personality and it is being confirmed that only He can be cognisant of His own Self by His own knowledge and none other.

The words bhūta-bhāvanā means universal father denoting the progenitor of all beings.

The word bhūteśa means the Lord of all beings indicating the absolute controller.

The words jagat-pate refers to Jagannātha the Lord and master of creation.

The words deva-deva means God of gods and instructs that even as the devas excel in innumerable auspicious qualities of form, beauty, aesthetics, etc. over lower and lower creations such as human, animal, birds and reptiles.

In the same way the Supreme Lord excels over all devas and any other conceivable god as well.

vaktum arhasy-aśeṣeṇadivyāhyātma vibhūtayaḥ|
yābhir-vibhūtibhir lokān imāṃs tvaṃvyāpya tiṣṭhasi || 16 ||

16.  Kindly  tell  Me  without  reserve,  of  Your  divine   supernal  manifestations  whereby  You  abide pervading all these worlds.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Whatever glories and wondrous phenomenal activities that manifest and exist as a result of the Supreme Lord Krishna; only He and He alone is able to describe and elaborate upon them as only He alone is capable of displaying them.

His glories are unlimited and endless and as He is proficient in the governing of all creation through His all-pervading aspect and the governing of all beings by His paramātma aspect within all beings as the Supreme soul.

katham vidyām ahaṃyogiṃs tvāṃsadāparicintayan |
keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu cintyo’si bhagavan mayā|| 17 ||

17. O Almighty Lord, How can I, a Yogi, know You by constantly meditating on You? And in what forms are you to be contemplated upon by Me.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

These questions are asked to Lord Krishna by the words katham vidyam aham yogims meaning how to be able to know and follow yoga the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, and engage in constant meditation on Him with devotion.

Devotion knowing the Supreme Lord is endowed with the six perfections of total power, total beauty, total wisdom, total fame, total wealth and total renunciation which accompany His illustrious attributes of omniscience, perfection, eternity, sovereignty, majesty etc.

Now Arjuna desires to know in what other ways yet untold is Lord Krishna's vibhūti transcendental majestic opulence displayed throughout existence which exemplifies His Supreme eminence and paramount position as the ultimate controller of all creation.

vistareṇātmano yogaṃvibhūtiṃca janārdana |
bhūyaḥkathaya tṛptir hi śṛṇvato nāsti me’mṛtam || 18 ||

18. Tell me again in detail, O Krishna, about Your attributes and glories. For I am never satiated by hearing Your ambrosial words.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Previously in verse eight Lord Krishna revealed that He is the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Ultimate Reality and the cause and origin of all.

Now He is being requested to elaborate in more detail and supply further facts about His vibhūti or Supreme transcendental perfection and His Supreme yoga, in regard to His Supreme rulership throughout all creation.

Arjuna confesses that listening to His unparalleled instructions is exactly like ambrosial nectar and he is never satiated by it.

śrībhagavān uvāca
hanta te kathayiṣyāmi divyāhyātma vibhūtayaḥ|
prādhānyataḥkuru-śreṣṭha nāsty-anto vistarasya me || 19 ||

The Blessed Lord said:

19. Gladly shall I relate to you, O Arjuna (Best of the Kurus), the most prominent of My divine personal expansions (Vibhūtis)—There is indeed no limit to their extent.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

The word Lord Krishna uses to describe His ātma-vibhutayah or His personal divine transcendental opulence is pradhanyatah which means prominent, the most exalted of His manifestations for it would not be possible to recount them all as His glories are perpetual.

Throughout this chapter the Supreme Lord Krishna has expressed His power of yoga.

His yoga denotes the rulership as the creator of all and His vibhuti denotes the governance of all living entities as displayed by His residing in the etheric heart of every living entity. This also includes the functions of creator, preserver and destroyer of the total material manifestation.

aham ātmāguḍākeśa sarva bhūtāśaya sthitaḥ|
aham ādiśca madhyaṃca bhūtānām anta eva ca || 20 ||

20. I am the Self, O Gudākesa (Arjuna —Conqueror-of-sleep), dwelling in the hearts of all beings. I verily am the beginning, the middle and also the end of all beings.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

Within the etheric hearts of all living entities is enthroned the ātma or eternal soul which comprises the spiritual body of the Supreme Lord Krishna.

To be the eternal ātma is to be in every respect the support, the ruler and controller of the living entities and to be blessed with the ātma is to be eternally connected to the Supreme Lord lifetime after lifetime forever.

The Brihadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad V.VII.XV beginning yas sarvashu bhuteshu tishthan sarvebhyo bhutebhyo states:

He who is enthroned in the heart of all beings, Who is the innermost of all beings, Whom all the beings know not, Whom all beings form His spiritual body, Who rules the interior of all beings, is the ātma, the Antaryāmī -  the immortal inner ruler.“

In the same Upaniṣad V.VII.XXII beginning ya ātmani tisthan ātmano it states:

He who is enthroned within the ātma, Who resides within the interior of the ātma, Whom even the ātma does not know, Whom all ātma's are the spiritual body, Who rules the interior of the ātma is paramātma the Supreme ātma of all.”

So enthroned as such within the ātma of all living entities as paramātma the Supreme Lord is the beginning, the middle and the end of all beings and their cause, their evolution and their dissolution.

So now that it has been shown how the Supreme Lord abides within all His manifested beings as the ātma and how all terms regarding the ātma in their ultimate reference samanadhi-kāraṇya which means two or more terms signifying different ideas but referring to a singular object connotes the Supreme Lord Himself.

Such references concerning the relationship between the Supreme Lord and His manifested creation will be illustrated by many notable examples.

Verily only then do all such terms have the ultimate connotation as referring to the Supreme Lord when He is residing within as the eternal ātma.

For example the terms of deva, human, animal, tree etc. although denotative of the corporeal exterior, is connotative of the eternal soul which indwells within those exterior forms.

The same rule holds true in regard to terms ultimately connotative in referring to the Supreme Lord in His aspect as the eternal soul of all living things as well.

Movable or immovable nothing exists without the Supreme Lord Krishna and so all are dependent upon the Him.

ādityānām ahaṃviṣṇur jyotiṣāṃravir-aṃśumān |
marīcir marutām asmi nakṣatrāṇām ahaṃ śaśī|| 21 ||

21.  Among  the  Ādityas  I  am  Vishnu,  of  luminaries  I  am  the  radiant  Sun.  Of  the  Maruts   I  am Marīchi, and among the constellations I am the Moon.

Rāmānuja’s Commentary

The 12 Ādityas are revealed in the Vishnu Purāṇa being Dhātri, Aryamā, Mitra, Varuṇa, Indra, Vivasvān, Pūshan, Parjanya, Amśa, Bhaga, Tvaṣṭṛ and Vishnu.

The Supreme Lord Krishna's vibhūti or divine transcendental opulence is the one bearing the name Vishnu who is chief of them all. Of the lights that shine in the countless universes Lord Krishna's vibhūti is the solar group consisting of all suns.

Of the 7 Maruts being Avaha, Prahava, Nivaha, Purvaha, Udvaha, Samvaha and Parivaha who are different varieties of winds blowing throughout space, Lord Krishna's vibhūti is the chief wind known as Parivaha who bears the name Marīchi, the primal wind which precedes all the others.

Of all constellations Lord Krishna's vibhūti is the Moon. The genitive case of the word sasi meaning moon is not referring to one out of many but is specifying one over all. Thus naksatranam aham sasi refers to the moon as being the Lord over all the constellations.

This will also be exemplified similarly in the next verse where He states His vibhūti is the consciousness in all beings which means that what exists as consciousness apart from intelligence is His vibhūti also.